Difference between forging and casting: Both production processes require the use of high temperatures in steel raw materials (for liquefaction or softening) and CNC machining at the end of the process to obtain the final product. Finished products may also undergo surface finishing operations such as painting, powder coating, polishing, various types of coating (eg zinc plating) and protection / hardening (using tungsten carbide coating). Last but not least, casting and forging parts may be assembled, welded, bruised, hardened before shipment as final products. Products from casting and forging processes in terms of surface porosity (generally better for forged products than cast), grain structure (finer for wrought iron products), tensile strength (usually superior to forged products) and fatigue resistance. There are different properties.
Casting process for:
- Its components and components are too complex or expensive to makesteel (for example, large valve bodies).
- Parts that have an internal cavity;
- Large parts (in terms of the weight of the parts that can be produced by the casting process) have no size limit.
- Special alloy parts (Some special alloys are harder to make than castings, for example, parts with a high nickel and molar content, which have significant resistance to mechanical forces).
- Parts that require mass production and a small number.
Forging process for:
- Components that require very high strength, toughness and durability (in fact, during the forging process, the structure of the steel grains is modified to match the shape of the final product – with high uniformity of composition and metallurgical recrystallization).
- Parts that must withstand stronger shocks and mechanical forces.
- Parts where porosity, gas leakage, pockets and possible cavities (even fine grains) are not acceptable.
- Production of strong mechanical parts without the use of expensive alloys;
- Parts that require high abrasion resistance.
- Parts that are subject to high pressure and strain.
- High applications when honesty and quality are the main goal in the production process, not time and cost.
The evolution of casting technologies has narrowed the gap between the physical properties of cast and forged products, making new cast products highly competitive in quality, strength and abrasion resistance: Nevertheless, in many areas, steel forging It remains. Preferred production option (for example: small valves, ie forged valves or high pressure valves).
The main types of casting processes are:
Sand casting is the most traditional method of casting and involves pouring liquid metal into adhesives that resist molten metal.
This term refers to the precision molding that is done by injecting liquid metal into a metal mold and a ceramic coating. The material of the mold can be hard wax, lost wax, lost foam and the like.
These processes are used for different applications in terms of parts dimensions (sand casting for large parts, investment casting for small parts up to 100 kg and a maximum length of 1.5 meters), allowable bearing (more precise parts investment casting Creates) and goals (investment costs are more economical than economic sand casting).
Steel forging appeared in ancient China to produce various types of metal products. While the steps and tools used to produce forged parts have changed over the centuries (from the use of embankments, hammers and manpower to automatic machines as hydraulic presses), the main steel forging process is still based on the use of thermal to solid energy. Is. Steel blocks and further processing them into final products using mechanical forces (hammers).
The main forging process involves several traditional steps:
- If necessary, raw materials (steel blocks, ingots, ingots) are cut into smaller pieces.
- The raw materials are heated to reach the required forging temperature. Forging temperature depends on the type of metal and is achieved by placing the material in the furnace / oven.
- Heated metal is formed by applying mechanical forces (pressure) as required.
- The semi-finished part is machined, finished and heat treated
At the end of the process, the product obtained due to metallurgy recrystallization and grain refining due to applied heat and mechanical treatment, has high strength, abrasion resistance and abrasion resistance.
Depending on the temperature applied to the raw material during the forging process, forging is classified as follows:
- Cold forged steel: If the heating is not used, the forging process occurs at room temperature (higher mechanical forces are required in this case and the metal has less ductility compared to heating or heating methods)
- Hot forging steel: Raw materials are heated at a temperature of 800 to 950/1000 degrees Celsius
- Hot forging steel: When the heating temperature is higher than 950/1000 ° C (and generally less than 1300 ° C), it gives high ductility to the metal, and even with moderate mechanical pressures, forging can be made possible. .
Types of forged steel
FORGING – DIE FORGING
Die Die Forging is a forging process in which the molds move towards each other and completely or partially cover the workpiece. The heated raw material, which is roughly the shape or size of the finished part, is placed in the form of a foam.
“Forged steel for open molds” is the process of deforming a piece of metal between several molds that does not completely enclose the material. This metal is formed by the function of molds that “hammer” or “seal” through a series of movements to reach the required shape.
OPEN-DIE VS. CLOSED-DIE
Areas of application of casting and forging steel containers (difference between forging and casting)
Casting and forging steel are used to produce parts for the following industries:
- Petrochemical plants (eg forged valves, forged rebars, flanges, etc.)
- Electricity generation and waste processing
- Mining and mineral processing
- Agriculture and Animal Husbandry
- water refinery
- Automotive industry (pulleys and gears)
- Material transfer
- Brick work
- Asphalt plants
- Waterfall Parts
- Provider plants
Rose Calibration Company in Melbourne, Australia with over ten years of experience provides all calibration, maintenance, and repair services throughout Australia. If you live in Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide, Perth, Geelong, and Brisbane, you can receive your quote in less than two hours by fill-up the form via the “Booking” link.