Military radars first entered the process measurement industry in 1980. These radars have taken a big step towards the downsizing and industrialization of radar precision instruments by creating industrial changes in their manufacturing technology and using FET technology in the construction of electrical circuits.
Both radar and microwave signals propagate at the speed of light. But the difference is in their frequency. Broadcast frequencies are typically between 88 MHz and less than 1 GHz, while microwave frequencies range from 1 to 300 GHz. Usually this frequency range is used only for military applications in aircraft and ground radars. Another difference is in their level of power. The power of the radar signal is about 0.01mw / cm ^ 2 while the power of the microwave is in the range of 0.5-0. Due to the operation of microwaves at higher energy levels, their resistance is higher than radar-type sensors. Therefore, radar gauges are different from ultrasonic sensors in using microwaves instead of sound waves. Like ultrasonic equipment in this method, they are installed on top of the tank to determine the level of measuring materials. Radar sensors include a transmitter, antenna, processor radar receiver, and operator interface. In the transmitter, semiconductor oscillators generate electromagnetic waves. The frequency most often used for this equipment is about 10 GHz.
Higher frequency transmitters can be used to detect dry and non-conductive materials with very small amounts of bulk material. Since there are different types of antennas, choosing the right type of antenna for use and installation is important and fundamental.
The choice of antenna depends on the following criteria:
Type of application – Free space in front of the styling well
• Installation facilities – Size, position and height of the nozzle
• Characteristics of materials stored in the tank – Radar reflectivity, vapor pressure, temperature, etc.
• Accurate measurement accuracy.
Flat antennas are used for styling wells and the following antennas are used for outdoor applications:
• Rod antennas
antennas • Parabolic antennas
Each antenna is suitable for a specific application.
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