Designing a seawater reverse osmosis map: Important criteria to be considered
When designing for any theme, be it a machine, a program or a process, you should always consider a few basic factors that can determine the validity of a design. Over the past decade, water and wastewater treatment methods in the development of epidemic solutions to water scarcity with more emphasis on sustainability
Is taken into consideration. The design of a seawater reverse osmosis map (SWRO) requires a detailed analysis with various criteria to be considered in the design of these systems.
In designing a SWRO map, one of the criteria that must be considered is the process of receiving seawater and the process of discharging the flow of concentrated brackish water into the ocean.
Another important criterion considered in designing a SWRO map is pre-treatment process engineering based on the water quality of the site. Below, we will briefly discuss why these processes are important above and how to address them.
Water intake facilities
The biggest concern about water intake facilities is the potential for degradation and absorption of marine life. What exactly does it mean? Well, the general definitions for each are:
Impact: Infringement (on) collision, fall (on) Trapping (in engineering): Trapping another substance
In this context, dewatering facilities refer to larger organisms that are trapped in the lattice plates around the entrance.
Trapping, on the other hand, refers to smaller creatures that can pass through lattice plates. Together, they simply refer to the collective perception of marine organisms by the absorption system.
However, there is no conclusive and numerical evidence that damage and additives cause significant changes in the surrounding ecosystem, as it is difficult to assess.
However, these cases of damage and the entry of lattice input systems can cause a significant increase in operating costs.
These operating costs are associated with cleaning the grilles, due to changes in water quality, increased energy consumption by inlet pumps, and the cost of chemicals.
There are several options for dealing with trauma and trapping:
Location of dewatering and design facilities
Dehydration facilities can be located in areas with lower biological productivity or lower densities of marine organisms. Inputs can also be designed with higher recovery speeds, meaning they require less ocean water.
Special low-velocity dewatering facilities allow marine life to escape the flow of inlet pumps, as well as reduce sediment / sludge uptake from the ocean floor. This process helps prevent entry and damage.
Type of dewatering facility
There are several types of dewatering facilities in SWRO map design that can be divided into two main groups: surface and subsurface.
The most common dewatering systems are based on the uptake of surface dewatering facilities, which include deep water intakes, coastal inlets and offshore inlets. They are directly exposed to the ocean and therefore use a combination of location, barriers and deterrents to reduce stress-induced accidents and the entry of organisms.
Groundwater intakes are located under the sea, so they do not pose any danger or inconvenience and enjoy the benefits of natural sand treatment. These systems include four types of intakes and two types of vestibules.
Obstacles and barriers
Sometimes it is easy to put up a wall or some simple obstacles that keep fish away from watering facilities. Obstacles are things like grids or grids that prevent creatures from approaching the dewatering facility. Deterrents prevent reactions from sea creatures by using reactions such as air bubbles, strobe lights, sound generators and speed caps.
Drain / outlet
The purpose of the outlet system and an integral part of the SWRO design is to drain the brine concentrate. As in the catchment area, the main concern about discharge is the potential damage to marine organisms from the high salinity of saline waste. Concentrated water is denser than mid-ocean water. Therefore, after leaving, the salt water sinks under the sea. This salinity can increase the local salinity of the sea and have a negative effect on organisms that are sensitive to changes in the composition of the surrounding water.
Some options for improving output systems include:
Instead of pumping all the salt water concentrate from a separate pipe, the dispensers can be placed in series along a pipe to mix and prevent the salt water from settling to the bottom of the sea. There are also low-speed diffusers that increase the diffusion and dilution of brine over a wide range of areas.
Drainage of salt water is dangerous because of its concentration, but diluting it with more water will lower its concentration. Diluting water can be obtained from treated wastewater from treatment plants, cooling towers of power plants or other industrial sources if located in the vicinity of these facilities.
Atria and infiltration cavities
These systems are large networks of pipes buried under a thin layer of sand. Use brine in such a way that the brine returns slowly over a long period of time so that mixing can potentially occur naturally.
Zero fluid drain (ZLD)
These systems are increasingly popular in many SWRO industrial plant design applications . However, their performance can be costly. If the ZLD system is used to recycle seawater desalination effluents, a thermal evaporation process is required due to the salinity level in the discharged water. A crystallization process is required to extract and dry the salt from this brine so that the resulting salt can be sold.