Torque Or Turaqe is the product of the force applied to an object from the point of effect to the point where the object begins to rotate under the same force.Torque The force and energy required to drive an object. The torque generated by a motor generates a propulsive tensile force to drive the wheels. For example, when you want to turn a screw with a wrench, the force required to turn the screw is called the torque. In this case, the torque is equal to the amount of force required by the distance from the center of the screw to the place where the force is applied to the wrench.
The units of torque are Newtons per meter, kilograms per centimeter, and feet per pound. The equation of torque is T = R * N, where: T is the torque (TORQUE) and: R is the radius and: N is the applied force, so whenever we want to increase the torque, I either choose a longer wrench or increase the force applied to it.
Torque is measured by sensing the true deflection of the axis created by a torsional force or by appearing the effects of this deflection. Under Torque The surface of an axis becomes compact and stretched. To measure Torque, Usually on top of the strain gauge are placed in pairs on the axis. The increase in length is measured by one gauge (in the direction in which the surface is under tension) and the decrease in length is measured by another gauge in the other direction. Sensors TorqueInitially, optimal mechanical structures were formed with strain gauges. Their high cost and low reliability have led to industrial rejection. Although modern technology has reduced the cost of torque sensors, quality control over the product still requires accurate measurements.Torque Has increased.
The torque sensor is a tool for converting, measuring and recording the torque of rotating systems, such as the engine crankshaft or generator shaft, and we have two torque models called static torque and dynamic torque.Torque measurement Static is relatively easy but measurable Dynamic torque It is much more difficult because it requires the transfer of effects such as electricity and magnetism from the measured shaft to a static system. The sensors used as torque sensors are strain gauges that are mounted on a rotating shaft. Because the sensor needs power and the output signal must be read, dynamic torque measurement becomes more difficult. To do this, circular slip rings were often used in older systems, which are used in newer systems of wireless sensors. Also, with the help of wireless transmission methods, even A / D converter and recorder can now be placed on the shaft and the measurement accuracy can be greatly increased. Torque measurement with piezoelectric technique is based on SAW and BAW. One of the applications of the torque sensor that reduces fuel consumption is in the car engine. If you want to know more about SAW-based sensors, you should first read about Rayleigh Theory or Acoustic Wave Surface Theory. For example, insert two combs so that their teeth do not come in contact with each other. In this case, you have created a structure called an interdigital converter or IDT. Now, if you apply this structure to a piezoelectric substrate with the right materials and apply a certain frequency of AC voltage to both ends, a surface wave called a SAW will form on the surface of the substrate. If we have another IDT structure on the other side of the substrate, after the surface wave is generated by the first IDT, the two ends of the second IDT generate a voltage whose frequency is approximately the same as the input wave frequency under normal conditions where no mechanical effect is externally applied to the substrate. Equal to. However, by applying quantities such as pressure or tension or temperature and… below the surface layer of the frequency wave, the two output IDT heads will change with the output frequency in the first IDT in proportion to the applied mechanical change (known as mass loading). The generated frequency in the first IDT is propagated depending on the distance of its comb-shaped teeth from each other, their shape and length in a direction perpendicular to the surface of the teeth in the substrate surface. But for Torque measurement A shaft with SAW Two SAW resonators are connected in the form of a half-bridge (Half-Bridge) and are fastened on the shaft at an angle of 45 degrees to the shaft axis. Now by applying an RF wave (usually 200 MHz) wirelessly to the SAW, on the other hand, depending on the amount of torque and torque applied from the shaft to the SAW as a load effect, the received wave frequency will change up to one MHz. Accordingly, the measured torque can be up to 1rpm.
Torque sensor sensor configurations
Torque can be measured by rotating strain gauges or magnetoelastic and magnetostrictive sensors, all of which are temperature sensitive. As the torque changes, the magnetic permeability coefficient for the rod changes, which can be measured by a magnetostrictive sensor. , When the rod is unloaded, its permeability coefficient is uniform everywhere. But under the torque the number of lines of the magnetic field and proportionally Torque The permeability coefficient changes. This type of sensor is made up of two primary windings and two secondary windings that are placed on one side of the rod. The magnetoelastic torque sensor measures changes in its permeability by measuring changes in its magnetic field. This type of sensor consists of a thin steel rod that is tightly coupled to a rotating rod. This compound acts as a fixed magnet whose magnetic field strength is proportional to the torque applied to the rod. This narrow bar is placed between the motor and the load. A magnetic sensor converts the generated field into an output electrical signal that alternates with the applied torque.
Due to space constraints, rotation sensors must be mounted on the shaft, but this is not always possible.
A strain gauge can be mounted directly on a bar. The torque sensor is connected to the power supply and its information signal is transmitted by a slider ring mounted on the rod due to the rotation of the rod. The strain gauge can also be connected to the source via a converter, thus eliminating the need to maintain the slider ring. The excitation voltage is inductively coupled to a strain gauge and the output strain gauge is converted to a pulse. The maximum speed is 1500rpm for such a combination.
Strain gauges can also be placed on fixed sections. The torque transmitted from the rod to the parts is measured by these reaction sensors. but this Accurate measurement No because engine inertia is not considered. Strain gauges used to measure torque include foil, diffused semiconductors, and a variety of thin films. These can be attached directly to the rod with solder or glue. If the applied forces are not large and can withstand an unbalanced load, then electronic accessories including batteries, amplifiers and radio transmitters can be placed on the bar. Proximity and displacement sensors can obtain torque by measuring the angular displacement between the two ends of a rod. By attaching two identical gears to the two ends of the rod at a certain distance, the resulting angular displacement can be measured by torque. Proximity or photocell sensors mounted on each gear produce two voltages whose phase difference increases with increasing torque on the rod. Another way to Torque measurement, Is a photocell that as the torque increases, the toothed cycles overlap more and therefore less light travels to the other side.
Torque displacements can be measured with other sensors such as optical, inductive, capacitive and potentiometric sensors. For example a Torque meter Capacitive type of operation is that by changing the torque, the distance between the two plates changes and their capacitance changes. The sensor measures the amount of torque by measuring this capacitive change.
Torque meter applications
Torque meter is used to measure torque in devices such as engines, gearboxes or even in soda bottles that are part of rotating or rotating systems. For example, if the beverage bottle is closed with more than the standard torque, it is difficult to open it by hand, and therefore the beverage manufacturers have to adjust the crack meter or the appropriate torque for twisting in the glass. The torque meter can also be a torque transmitter or transducer, ie it can be manually and an indicator or with an output.Torque measurement Rotating and moving axes or dynamics are more difficult than torque measurements of stationary and static models. Of course, this measurement is easily done using new technologies and remote models. The information collected on dataloggers for quality control can be accumulated and the results reported. Other industrial applications of torque sensors include measuring chip removal rate, calibrating torque instruments, measuring wear forces, testing springs, and biodynamic measurements.
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