Hydraulic and pneumatic systems are the main needs of the country’s industry today. Because, these systems add more speed and better performance to different industries. Among the devices that work on the basis of hydraulic or pneumatic system, we can mention hydraulic jacks, hydraulic pumps, gear pumps, piston pumps, as well as pneumatic jacks, pneumatic pumps, and so on.
In the past, the use of mechanical systems was common, but today, hydraulic and pneumatic systems have replaced it. In general, the main task of these systems is to convert energy into motion for various uses.
Pressure control can also be mentioned as applications and sub-capabilities . This pressure control is performed by solenoid valves in both hydraulic and pneumatic types , which has an important place in the industry.
What is a pneumatic?
Peniuma is a Greek word that literally means to breathe and wind . Now pneumatics can be introduced as a science that gives us information about air events and movements . Pneumatic is a cheap , low-risk, clean energy .
Pneumatics is a type of energy that, as mentioned, has replaced mechanical systems today and is widely used in industry. It can be said that today the number of manufacturers and factories that do not use pneumatics is very small. Because this energy has passed its tests and its abilities and capabilities have been proven to humans and industry owners. As a result, its use is associated with complete confidence and collective imagination.
Advantages of pneumatic system:
1. The factor that is necessary and must exist for the operation of this system is air . So this system is easily used everywhere.
2. Pneumatic optimization The use of gas and air is very pure and clean . So they use this system for industries that need a lot of cleanliness . For example, industries, food or industrial machinery .
3. This system is not particularly sensitive to temperature changes .
4. The pneumatic solenoid valve has the ability to accelerate the force, pressure as well as change direction , which is very practical and important.
5. The pneumatic system is non-flammable . Therefore, it has good security that makes it possible to use this system for any consumption.
6. The speed of this system is very high even compared to the hydraulic system.
7. Parts and fittings used in the pneumatic system are largely inexpensive and accessible .
Disadvantages of pneumatic system:
1. It has a special capacity and does not produce more pressure, and if you need more pressure, you should use a hydraulic system or a combination of both to provide the pressure you need.
۲. Air must be prepared to do the work, which includes a number of specialized items.
3. Atmospheric tension that this can cause the necessary accuracy in the work is not applied and there is some error
What is hydraulic?
Hydraulic also comes from a Greek word for hydro . As it turns out, the word means water , flow , and fluid movements in general . In the distant past, the word was used only as water, but gradually the word became more important due to its uses.
The word is now used for liquid foundations, especially oil . Because in industry and for energy transfer, water can not be a good option. This is due to the corrosive nature of water, which can greatly damage industrial tools and cause rust.
Therefore, instead of water, oil is used in industry and in hydraulic systems.
The germ hydraulic system
1. Power is very high as well as strength and durability
۲. Hydraulic system components are very easy to install or repair .
3. This system has the ability to easily convert rotational motion to linear motion, and vice versa.
4. If you need it to move quickly change. Even during work and under load
5. A lot of energy is produced.
6. Because hydraulic components are constantly working oil life and life more as well.
7. The speed of this system is very high and at high speeds the power of the system will remain equally good and powerful.
Disadvantages of hydraulic system:
1. This system can cause some environmental pollution .
۲. There is probably a fire in this system. Because the operation of this system is based on oil and in case of oil leakage, fire will occur.
3. If the slightest carelessness and non-compliance with standards occurs in this system, it can be very dangerous.
4. People who deal with this system are more likely to be seriously injured if oil is spilled on them .
5. Temperature plays an important role in the operation of hydraulic systems and can be a major problem.
6. This system is very sensitive and reacts to airborne contaminants, dust and so on.
The difference between hydraulic and pneumatic systems
In general, if we want to tell you the difference between these two systems, we must address the following:
The element that makes hydraulic systems work, as mentioned earlier , is hydraulic oil . This oil is an incompressible liquid and can be considered in different types in the industry. Depending on the user mode, everyone and each industry should use a different model.
In contrast, in the case of pneumatic systems, the element that causes it is compressed air, which, as it turns out, is a type of gas.
As a result of the fact that the gas has a density and the liquid used in hydraulic systems is incompressible, the first difference between the two systems appears. It is also good to know that many pneumatic systems use other gases instead of compressed air.
Open or closed circuit
In hydraulic systems, you will see two types of circuit will be : open circuit and closed circuit . Also in this system, it can be said that we have a tank or a type of tank whose task and application is to hold a certain amount of hydraulic oil .
The oil stored in the tank is sucked out of the tank by the hydraulic pumps in the system during work and flows into the system. Finally, after the work is completed, the oil passes through the system to The tank returns. When the system works like this, we can say that we are dealing with a closed system .
But in the case of the pneumatic system, the situation is quite different. In this way, the compressors in this system are responsible for drawing the ambient air into the system and then, after fully compressing and compressing the air, they direct it into the system. This compressed air while working And the performance of the system is maintained, through ducts called the outlet duct , are discharged into the environment. This means that this air no longer returns to the system and does not enter the system. That is why in industry we use the term open circuit or open cycle system for pneumatic system.
Working pressure range
One of the most important things that can be considered in hydraulic and pneumatic systems and can be other points of difference between the two, can be mentioned the working pressure parameter of the system.
The criterion and unit of measurement of working pressure is ba r . To explain more clearly about this criterion, we can say that each time is equal to 100 kpa.
Pneumatic systems are used in industries and applications where you need less work pressure . For example, it can be said that a pneumatic system is suitable for numerical working pressure of about 16 bar and shows good performance. Regarding the working pressure in hydraulic systems, we must say that this number is much higher than the number related to the working pressure of pneumatic systems. Working pressure in hydraulic systems can be estimated between 50 and 300 bar.
The exact position of the operators
The main operators present in hydraulic and pneumatic systems are hydraulic or pneumatic jacks , and hydraulic or pneumatic motors . Depending on the power of the hydraulic and pneumatic systems we are considering, these actuators, which are installed by specialists in the system, are different and work differently.
For example, in a hydraulic lift , the operating factor and the most important part of the system can be considered as the hydraulic jack , which is located in the lift device connected to the cab. It’s the jack that makes the cab move and relocate.
Or if we want to give an example for a pneumatic system, a press machine is a good option. This device, which is based on the pneumatic system, has its main operators. Pneumatic jacks are the actuators whose job it is to move the mold and shape it. The pressing operation is done with exactly these two items.
Use in health industries and no pollution
As we have said before about pneumatic systems, the operating element of these systems is the compressed air that is present in our environment, so it can be said that the operation of these devices does not cause any pollution to the environment.
This is the reason why pneumatic systems are used more in industries where the need for cleanliness and hygiene is more important than anything. Among these industries in which cleanliness has a special place and as a result pneumatic systems are used, we can name the food and health industries .
In these industries, if the hydraulic system is used, there is a possibility that in these industries, environmental pollution will occur severely and seriously at the end of the work. This is because in hydraulic systems, it is possible for the oil in the tank to leak from the pipes and fittings of the system and cause contamination. For this reason, the use of hydraulic systems is obsolete in industries that are primarily for the production of cleanliness and hygiene.
Hydraulic and pneumatic systems can be rightly considered as one of the most important and widely used systems in the industry. So it can be said that these systems are applicable in all industries.
Hydraulic and pneumatic systems have differences that we have mentioned, and in fact these differences make each of these systems specific to do something, but in general we can say that these two systems are similar to each other . Before you, as industry owners, buy and use any of these systems in your industry, it is good to read the contents of this article well and thus achieve a more appropriate result.
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