What is a vacuum?
A vacuum is a space that is empty of matter.
In this case, there are no air molecules that cause pressure. This is the ideal definition of a vacuum.
Absolute zero pressure is defined in this vacuum space .
In practice, such an environment is not possible because there are always a number of gas molecules.
But achieving very, very low pressures is not far-fetched, and today vacuum systems have been developed that can create environments with very low molecular resolution per unit volume.
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The pressure below the atmospheric pressure is called the vacuum state.
The word vacuum comes from the Latin equivalent of the word Empty.
However, the pressure between atmospheric pressure and absolute zero can be considered as the field of vacuum systems.
A vacuum system consists of a set of pumps, barometers, valves, traps, permanent and non-permanent connections (flanges) and their connecting pipes.
Vacuum is divided into several categories depending on the gas pressure:
- Low vacuum:
From atmospheric pressure to 1 mbar
- Medium vacuum:
From 1 millibar to 10E-3 millibar
- High vacuum:
From 10E-3 millibars to 10E-7 millibars
- Too much vacuum:
From 10E-7MB to 10E-14MB
Gas pressure is the force per unit area that is applied to the inner surface of a vessel through gas.
In fact, gas molecules strike the surface of a container through the kinetic energy of the molecules.
The higher the temperature, the faster the molecules move and the more force is applied to the vessel wall.
According to the kinetic theory of gases, the gas pressure is proportional to the number of collisions of molecules per unit area per unit time and we have:
P = 1 / 3mnc2
Where m is the mass of the molecule in gr (ratio of molecular mass to the number of avagadro), c is the average velocity of the molecules in cm / sec and n is the molecular density (N / V) or the square root of the average molecular velocity in cubic centimeters.
The lowest pressure available in the laboratory and at standard temperatures is around 10E-13 torr or 13Pico Pa.
However, in low temperature systems of about 4 degrees Kelvin, torr pressure of 5 × 10E-17 or 6.7Femto Pa is also measured indirectly.
Since gas pressure is caused by molecular motion and also molecular motion is directly related to temperature, very, very low pressures must be experienced at temperatures close to absolute zero.
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In each vacuum category, special pumping, measuring and transfer methods are used. It is safe to say that most vacuum applications in industry are low vacuum (atmospheric range up to 1 millibar).
Low vacuum is mostly used in drying, forming, concentrating, distilling, liquid pumping, material transfer, filtration and chemical processes.
Vacuum furnaces operate in medium vacuum.
The layering and film technology is created in a large vacuum range.
The particle accelerator operates in the range between high and very high vacuum.
Superior vacuums are used in nuclear fusion and particle accelerator rings.
It should be noted that each vacuum area has a special technology, and of course, as the pressure decreases, more complex arrangements have to be made.
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