The effect of ozone on the chemical composition of water
Ozone is one of the strongest oxidants in water refinery, Industrial water treatment and water disinfection and disinfection systems that are used in the treatment of drinking water, greenhouses, swimming pools. Ozone is a gas and must be prepared at the place of use. The reaction of ozone in water is the result of two consecutive processes:
Dissolution in water – transition from gas phase and dissolution in liquid
Effect of dissolved ozone on oxidants
Definition of total soluble solids ( TDS )
Total soluble solids are water, which is the sum of the concentrations of all water ions. It is clear that if the ions are in terms of carbonate equivalents, the ions can be summed together to express the sum of the total soluble solids.
TDS Different water in water treatment systems in terms of ppm are as follows.
Reverse osmosis technology
In reverse osmosis, the raw water is pumped by the pump into a chamber with a semi-permeable membrane because almost only pure water can pass through the membrane, thus almost pure water on one side of the membrane and condensed water on the impurity. We will have on the other side. Reverse osmosis works continuously and can reduce the TDS of raw water by up to 99%. In practice, reducing TDS by up to 95% is normal
The removal of bacteria, viruses and other microbes with reverse osmosis is one hundred percent loud, but due to the lack of complete sealing of the reverse osmosis system, a small amount of these impurities may be seen in the treated water.
This process is suitable for preparing drinking water from waters that contain high mineral salts and organic impurities, and is even able to provide drinking water from seawater with 50,000 ppm impurities and saline water.
Reverse osmosis is a very reliable method for treating ordinary water with a TDS of about 5000 ppm or more.reverse osmosis Can be used in pharmacy and medicine as an alternative to distillation, to produce pure water free of microorganisms.
Today, reverse osmosis is the most economical method of producing drinking water from low-water areas
Resin hardening guide and instructions in cooling towers, boilers and boilers and…
For the entrance of boilers and to get water hardness to prevent long-term deposits.
This is done by the resin inside the hardener.
Guide to industrial water treatment by reverse osmosis RO method
In industrial water treatment, reverse osmosis or water desalination, the use of water purification and industrial sand and carbon filtration is recommended.
Sand filter is used to reduce the grain size of water solutes up to 50 microns, charcoal or activated carbon filter to remove greed, taste, color.animosity Also, chlorine is removed from water. In the process of industrial water treatment system, reverse osmosis is the use of micron filters to reduce suspended particles up to 5 microns.
The main applications of resin hardeners are:
Water softening of boilers and heat exchangers
Water softening required for cooling towers and cooling systems
Softening the water used in the dyeing and dyeing industries
Application of coagulants in water treatment
Problem particles in water must be removed from the water, usually with a negative electric charge, and coagulants used in water treatment usually have a positive electric charge, which neutralizes the negative charge of suspended particles in the water and precipitates. Some coagulants have more positive ions than others. Coagulants containing trivalent ions such as aluminum and iron are 50 to 60 times more effective than coagulants with divalent ions 700 to 1000 times more effective than coagulants with valent hyic ions.
Indoor water purification
The water that falls on the ground and penetrates into it is treated on the one hand by producing nitrate in biological processes and on the other hand due to its smooth natural intensity due to the intervention of physical and mechanical phenomena in the ground.
Organic matter carried by water, gradually penetrating the ground, due to the reduction andoxidationThey are disintegrating one after another.
Nitrate production is the total phenomenon in which raw materials are converted to soluble nitrates that are directly absorbable to the plant. The role of albuminoid molecule separation is related to aerobic and anaerobic microbes that lead to the conversion of this molecule to ammonia salts in soil, life and in the first stage.
Then, under the influence of special bacteria, these salts are first converted to nitrite and then to nitrate. Therefore, nitrogen is absorbed by plants in the form of nitrate. Plants, like the nitrate production process, need conditions such as temperature, humidity and oxidation, but the presence of lime is also very important. This is because the ability to produce nitrate is high in permeable and limestone formations, while in siliceous and limestone soils it is poor.
In short, nitrate production is the end point of the conversion of an aqueous environment into a mineralized environment in which the microbes that may have been present in the organic matter from the beginning are no longer alive. In addition, these microbes compete vitally with other species that are fully adapted to the environment, and in this fight, most pathogenic species are killed.
Through natural filtration, microbes carried by organic matter are stopped due to a mechanical result that results from the disintegration of the grains that make up the Travast Formation. The basis of this purification process is the adsorption phenomenon. The phenomenon of surface adsorption refers to the property of some solid bodies that can hold soluble, suspended or colloidal bodies at their surface. The adsorption phenomenon is a purely physical phenomenon of an electrostatic nature.
On the other hand, because in sandy soils, this absorbing wall is composed of a wide surface of sand grains, it is extremely large. Therefore, purification is performed at a distance that is a variable as a function of the diameter and order of the grains as well as the internal arrangement of the layer.
Note that natural smoothing is also possible in lands with large samples, depending on the adsorption phenomenon, provided that the rock formations are very narrow or that the wide openings are filled with fine material. In these lands, the duration of contact with the walls plays a major role. Therefore, water purification from white mud or limestone is done well if the water is moving slowly. Also, if the juicy vein has a sufficiently thick cover soil, it will be more reliable.
The speed of water circulation in the ground
Due to the variable speed of water circulation in the earth, only approximate figures can be mentioned. The penetration velocity was measured in limestone soils at 40 m and in others at 10 km in 24 h.
Diener provides the following information for alluvial valleys:
Near the hill near the surface water intrusion area: on average, 0.04 meters per hour or one meter in 24 hours.
Near the river: on average 0.2 meters or 5 meters in 24 hours.
During pumping, the speed increases and varies between 5 meters to 20 meters in 24 hours. At finer alluvium, the speed is lower. In Frankfurt, speeds of around 0.02 meters per hour or 0.5 meters per 24 hours were observed.
Foiling agents and sedimentation in the reverse osmosis system
In general, the accumulation of water-soluble salts in the pores of the membranes can increase the pressure drop between the outputs of the reverse osmosis system, and the accumulation of soluble salts in this system is called filling.
Importance and application of cation resin and anionic resin in Tough And deionizer systems
Application for sale of anionic resin and cationic resin in water hardener
Water used in industry and drinking in Iran has a lot of water-soluble salt residues. Calcium and magnesium ions are among the major impurities in Iran’s water and are mainly called thermal deposits. Excessive amounts of these cationic ions are not suitable for industrial, sanitary and food use of water.
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